What Happens Above The Fold?

Designers make specific considerations for effective visual communication. It is not only an art, but a science.

What is the ‘above the fold’ concept?

The most eye-catching story or image in a newspaper lies on the most visible part of the paper when it is folded in half and set on a newstand. The obvious goal… to pull in readers quickly and get them to buy. Today, we also call this the ‘virtual fold’.

Where is the ‘virtual fold’?

This depends on:

how a user is browsing the web;

the physical size of the users screen;

the resolution the users screen is set to;

what device the user is viewing on.

There are numerous ways to calculate the fold line. As many as the myriad of online viewing scenarios but, essentially, web design ‘above the fold’ lies where the user begins to scroll.

What lies ‘above the fold’?

Whether you are using web or print communications, virtually, the same principles apply.

The hierarchical list of what you want to communicate for your visitor begins with:

Branding/Identity

WHO are you?

Positioning Statement

WHAT is your content/subject matter?

Navigation

HOW do I move around and what information can I find?

And now comes the all important…

WHY?

Communications is about engaging customers.

How do we engage visitors so they scroll down and move about your website?

As in any design, it is important to put yourself in the shoes of your ideal customer. What are they looking for? Beyond the most important elements listed above, you can begin by making a hierarchical list of what your customer finds most important in relation to your business. List the reasons they are coming to your website. Define the questions new customers ask. Taking into consideration your specific intents will help you with your thought process, but be sure to think like your customer!

The principles of space usage, typography, and other elements of effective hierarchical communication are essential to both print and web design, but the methods of achieving these principles involve different skill sets and considerations for your viewer.

Visually Leading Your Viewers With Intent

How do we get your customers to pay attention to your message?

As designers, we strive to lead viewers attention through your important communications by using …

contrasting size (scale), color, and page position.

large, bold display type and/or graphics to direct them.

varying visual weight, intensity, and color, applying appropriate focus.

We like to make it easy for viewers to read,
so we organize elements using …

a grid system to arrange elements coherently in the space.

multiple columns to help place text and visuals into smaller, more easily taken in bytes of information- such as, text divided into two or three equal columns. Text the full width of the page loses a reader. Optimal reading line width has a standard ratio that is relative to the overall width of the page. A single wider column with a smaller column for pullout quotes and other types of supporting content also works well.

left aligned (unjustified) text to create visual relief while managing the “rag” or sentence breaks.

increase leading (white space between lines) to lighten the look of the page.

White space…. Yes! It has a purpose!

White space helps differentiate the different elements in the space and gives the readers eyes a break. It is a fine balance. Too much material and the page will appear cluttered and viewers eyes are confused as to where to go. Too much white space and the page will appear empty, again confusing our viewers. But it is better to have too much white space than not enough.

We use white space when …

we want two elements to look distinct, using the appropriate white space between them provides focus.

an element needs to be highlighted, increasing the amount of white space around it draws attention.

optically balancing the space – leaving a little more white space at the bottom of a page relative to the top of the page and nice margins on left and right so nothing appears crammed on the page.

we create a wide margin with the purpose of directing the viewer’s attention into the copy or image area.

Our goal with visual communications is to invite the reader into the page and have them leave with your message.

IBM’s New Identity

Excellent April Fools! And I fell for it!

______________________

One of the most recognized logotypes in the world is changing… IBM.

A quick look at IBMs logo history.

The agency, Forty, has helped IBM rethink their brand identity. Read the full story here.

Excerpts from Fortys website written by Shaina Rozen, Marketing Director:

Forty says “their first step was to develop an in-depth brand metaphor for the new IBM. They brainstormed new keywords to propel IBM’s verbal and visual strategies, and developed a new tagline to drive home their refreshed brand.”

Brand keywords:

• Youthful: young, fresh, enthusiastic

• Energetic: lively, dynamic, vibrant

• Hip: trendy, popular, sharp

• Accessible: approachable, friendly, pleasant

• Forward-thinking: progressive, bold, pioneering

• Transparent: clear, honest, upfront

New tagline is “Intelligence Redefined”.

“IBM’s purpose, as isolated and refined by Forty, is simply “making people smarter.” This can happen through technology, training, communication, and any other type of knowledge-transfer interaction, all of which fall within IBM’s core competencies as a solution provider.“The visual strategy of using the rainbow pinwheel ”represents the world’s diversity unified into a thing of beauty. IBM is truly a global company, and this sense of diversity is present in everything they do. (Each one of these colors has a specific cultural significance in the countries where IBM envisions doing the most business over the next 100 years.)”

The new logo will be integrated slowly with completion projected by the end of 2011.

The new IBM design follows current trend of using lower case letters. This, combined with softer rounded letterforms, the dot icon of the “I” and a brighter color palette offers a more relevant, meaningful, contemporary, friendly and pleasing look. Ones eye and mind finishes the cut off ascender on the letter “b”.

It is well thought out, appropriate, timeless and obviously created by top level professional brand designers.

This is a pretty time-consuming April Fools! Hats off to Forty. This serves as an ingenious self promotion!

Color is perceived on three levels and they work together!

Physiological/subliminal: how our bodies reflexively respond to color; our subliminal associations of color based on our first interactions with color in nature reside in our collective unconscious.

Cultural: the conventions of color usage throughout time in specific cultures.

And

Marketing context: i.e., green in “warm beverages” means decaf … or in sodas it can be a flavor cue for lemon-lime.

Red is the most extroverted color in the spectrum, representing vitality, life and energy. People want to eat and drink more in the presence of red (i.e., Campbell’s Soup is a good example). In American culture, and in an American marketing context, red represents strength and leadership. The perceptual set of “red brands” includes: Target, Coca-Cola, Marlboro, Band-Aid, and Jell-O, market leaders all and “representatives” of classic, mainstream Americana.

Red IS the color to “own” or to use as an umbrella ‘owning color’ strategy because of its status as the most dominant color of all. It’s always a good idea for a brand to try to “own” a color in people’s minds (e.g. Immediate consumer associations of a color with the brand … i.e., Kodak and yellow, Duracell and copper/black) since people remember color first in the hierarchy of visual memory.

Owning a color affords instant recognition and distinction by customers in our highly saturated, complex and competitive brand landscape.

Building Brand, Delivering Happiness

I just finished reading Delivering Happiness by Tony Hseith, CEO, Zappos.com, Inc.

This IS a business book.

The first half of the book is a great story on who Tony is and how Zappos came to be. His genius is awe-inspiring and to be greatly admired. At such a young age, he offers many life-living nuggets which makes it not only a business book, but a life skills book as well.

But, most importantly, this book is about branding. Yes. It is about delivering happiness – through your company brand AND through living your life.

The book has a number of levels and many revelations. The author speaks of building a Tribe. He realized that he felt the happiest when he was in his “Tribe” where he gets a sense of love and belonging. Once he realized that Tribes are key, his intent became to build a Tribe with Zappos. Building a tribe (or a culture) is building a brand. Brand advocates are those who work there and those who buy there. They all become one “Zappos people” with the unified goal of delivering happiness to everyone. They all become brand ambassadors within the organization and in the outside world.

Branding is no longer a marketing or a PR function, but a natural organic process which grows from the culture. Amazing! Inside and outside of the business: Live it. Be it. Think it. A unified goal. The author has become a master at how and why we humans do what we do, which is key to building a brand that humans embrace.

Zappos is one of those companys that we should model for brand building behavior.

The author says, “It is really important to have core values that can be committed to. And if you’re willing to hire and fire based on them, you’re well on your way to building a company culture that is in line with the brand you want to build.”

For me, this brings a surprisingly refreshing approach to branding. Enjoy! And let me know what you think!

Delivering Happiness

www.deliveringhappiness.com

Best Design Practices

JCPenney’s recently launched new logo uses the lowercase letters “jcp” inside their signature box.

JCPenney says the “fresh, bold design is the most meaningful update to the Company’s logo in 40 years.” “We’ve made significant progress transforming our Company over the last several years by infusing great style into our assortments, delivering world-class customer service, and introducing new and innovative retail technologies that have made JCPenney a retail leader in the digital age,” said Chairman-CEO Mike Ullman. “Our new logo reflects the modern retailer we’ve become while continuing to honor our rich legacy.”

JCP says its new logo is well vetted and should not create the furvor the GAP logo did (which required some significant backpedaling). JCP accepted more than 200 redesigned logo submissions from company employees, design agencies and University of Cincinnati and Rhode Island School of Design Art Program students. The winning design was created by a University of Cincinnati graphic design student.

The logo was introduced in T.V. ads during the Academy Awards. I noticed the new logo right away but not necessarily for a good reason. I am a purist when it comes to graphic design, which is why it glaringly jumped out at me. There it was in all its glory in front of millions of people. The logo, run vertically, without the box (shown on the left below).

We read from top to bottom, so when type runs vertically it should be readable from the top down. It is as simple as that! When you see type running vertically and it runs bottom to top, it is wrong. I realize this is done frequently but it doesn’t mean it is correct.

Why would such a significant consumer brand not know “best design practices”? Why aren’t design schools teaching “best design practices” and the better question is, why don’t design agencies know this? Let’s not lose sight of these details. They convey a level of visual design professionalism and a respect for the viewing audience. Do a 180!

Color as a catalyst.

As a general rule, it doesn’t matter who your target audience is, everyone responds to bright colors.

A common myth: Green is a great color for financial services because it implies money and red is not because it implies “being in the red”.

The best contrast color combination for readability in advertising was discovered long ago by Western Union in the heyday of the telegraph and telegram–black letters on a yellow background.

Visual Balance – A powerful design tool

Designers use symmetry, color, value, shape and position to balance and neatly order objects.

Balance with Symmetry

Butterflies, maple leaves, and snowflakes can be evenly divided down the center. They are symmetrically balanced. Humans are attracted to symmetrical designs partially because our own bodies are symmetrical.

A designer can neatly order images or blocks of text, distributing equal portions along both sides of an invisible vertical axis. Human elements, such as a face or body placed symmetrically, can help us make an emotional connection.

Balance with Color

A small area of color can balance a much larger neutral area. Warm colors carry more weight visually than cool colors. Oranges and reds jump out at us. Blues and greens tend to recede. So a large area of a cool color can be used to balance a small area of a warm color.

Balance by Value

The contrast of light and dark attracts our attention. Black against white creates a strong contrast. A contrast of values on each side of a design creates so much eye interest that a tension is created between the sides. The eye moves from one to the other in an attempt to pull the two elements together.

Balance by Shape and Position

A large, simple shape (or image or text area) can be balanced by smaller, more complex elements. The larger shape generally attracts attention to the overall composition. The smaller elements are viewed as secondary. The farther an object is from the center of the page, the more visual weight it suggests. A single, very small element can counterbalance a large one (or group) if placed at the far side of a design.

For example, although this logo is no match for the large image on its own, its position in the outermost edge of the composition levels this design.

Steelers Logo

A bit of logo trivia in honor of the Pittsburgh Steelers and the big game. You Steelers fans probably know this already.

The Steelers logo is based on the Steelmark logo belonging to the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI). Created by U.S. Steel Corp.

The diamonds on the Steelers’ helmets are hypocycloids. Who knew?

Apparently, there are two meanings behind the yellow, orange, and blue. The logo originated from U.S. Steel, who interpreted the colors as meaning: yellow lightens your work, orange brightens your leisure, and blue widens your world. But the official meaning adopted by the Steelers is that yellow represents coal, orange is iron ore, and blue is scrap metal—the three elements used to make steel.

The Steelers are the only NFL team to wear their logo on only one side of their helmets – the right side. This was supposed to be so they could try out the look of the logo on an all-gold helmet.

In 1962 the team finished 9-5 and became the winningest team in franchise history at the time. They went on to finish second in the Eastern Conference and qualified for the Playoff Bowl. In an effort to do something momentous for their first postseason game, they changed the color of their helmets from gold to black. This color change highlighted the logo better.

Because of the interest generated by having the logo on only one side of their helmets and because of their team’s new success, the Steelers decided to leave it that way permanently.

Today’s helmet reflects the way the logo was originally applied and it has never been changed.

More Steelers’ logo history.

And Steelers fans can find lots more useful trivia on One 4 The Other Thumb.

Design based on a concept

Often people have a very literal idea about what they want others to see in their visual(s). It is what has meaning to them in relation to how they themselves see something, not in relation to what their customer sees and will understand. When we talk about a design (or a brand) meaning something or having significance beyond its obvious face value, it is the conceptual meaning we are talking about that is conveyed through the visual.

Assuming a client needs a visual that has meaning to its purpose…. How are designs done based on a concept? They clearly come from allowing the client to reveal the concept. Begin by engaging the client. They will tell you what you need to know if you *LISTEN*.

Mad Men fans will appreciate Roger Sterling’s wisdom when he said, “It’s about listening to people and never saying what’s really on your mind.” Roger is a wise man. I appreciate his wit and wisdom.

Help your client open up by asking questions related to their ideas about the company and specifically the project and its intent. The better you know the client, the easier this is. Make an effort to get to know them and observe how they communicate.

This brings to mind Roger Sterling’s wisdom again, “I don’t know if anyone ever told you that half the time this business comes down to: “I don’t like that guy.””

Listen listen listen. Look for the concept in the descriptive words they use. Find out what the clients own customers say.

Once the concept is clearly distilled, defined or identified, the design solution is not far behind. It is all in interpretation so to be sure you are receiving this idea clearly, repeat it back to the client. “So when you say…. Is this like….. ? Or do you mean….?”

For me it is like a lightning bolt hits me. It comes from the client and it’s exciting when the realization occurs that this is a viable core concept we should build on.

If the project involves a group, it is the same thing, except with more people. If they dont see eye to eye, it is your job to define the commonalities they do agree on and build a concept around them.

You might have a great idea you want to try or you may want to design something to win awards and accolades but this is not necessarily the way to achieve a positive experience for your client.

As we like to say, we see it when you say it.